16+ Foods That Crayfish Love to Eat in the Wild

Wild crayfish are omnivores, eating a variety of plant and animal matter in their natural habitat, including algae, insects, fish, shrimp, tadpoles, and even their own offspring.

what do crayfish eat in the wild

Many people worldwide eat crayfish and love it. From seafood boils and curries to grills and casseroles, there are several ways to prepare crayfish and enjoy it as a meal. But have you ever thought about what crayfish eat in their natural habitat – the wild?   

Crayfish are omnivores and eat plant and animal matter. In the wild, crayfish eat aquatic creatures and decaying vegetation. Rotten leaves, algae, insects, shrimp, tadpoles, fish, dead fish, larvae, twigs, baby turtles, and baby crayfish are examples of the crayfish diet in the wild.   

While farmed crayfish are fed primarily commercial food and vegetables, those in their natural habitat eat differently. Crayfish in the wild eat almost anything and everything they come across, including their own offspring.   

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16 Foods Crayfish Eat In The Wild   

Many people don’t realize that crayfish don’t have a specific diet preference. Pond crayfish are given specific foods prepared or purchased by their owners/farmers, so the wild crayfish diet is rarely discussed. Crayfish are odd creatures and eat anything that crosses their path, examples:   

Rotten Leaves

Rotten leaves are easy for crayfish because they can rip the decayed, soft leaves with claws. Any rotten leaves they find in or around the water will appeal to them, and they will immediately try to eat them.   


One of the benefits of crayfish eating anything they see is that they keep algae under control. They are slow creatures, and while they hunt, it is easier for them to access decaying vegetation like algae. This does help to reduce algae in settings where algae build up excessively.   


Twigs are another easily accessible item for crayfish to feed on. They will choose to eat twigs but also end up consuming them when trying to eat the algae of the twigs. Along with twigs, if they find grass and weeds, crayfish will not hesitate to eat those too.   

Dead Fish

Since crayfish are slow creatures, it is sometimes difficult for them to catch moving fish that are faster. But when crayfish find dead fish, it doesn’t matter to them that they are dead. They still choose to consume them.   


Even though crayfish are slow, they still hunt when and where necessary if they need food. The crayfish will gobble them up if they can find, reach, and catch living fish. Any sea creature meat they can find – living or dead – is good enough food for wild crayfish.   


Plankton, also known as Zooplankton, are marine creatures. They are found in water and cannot propel themselves against water currents. They are a crucial and common food source for many sea creatures, including crayfish.   


Aquatic worms are an easy food source for crayfish. Crayfish are bottom feeders, so finding worms on the bottom sediment is not tricky for crayfish. Worms are also slow, making it even simple for the slow crayfish to catch and gobble up.   


It is said that crayfish prefer to live with small snails are eat larger snails like apple and mystery snails. They like them to be big enough to tackle. But since crayfish are pretty opportunistic eaters, they will eat snails if hungry enough.   


Any eggs found in the water from fish, salamanders, and frogs will become food for crayfish. Crayfish will primarily go for plant matter but eat fish meat if they can. Eggs are the middle ground for crayfish; they tend to go for the eggs when they find them.   


Larvae are immature forms of insects. You could call them baby insects. Crayfish eat most insects, especially ones they cross paths with. If there are larvae around, the crayfish will eat them. They especially like mosquito larvae.   


Crayfish are fans of earthworms, bloodworms, flies, mosquitos, dragonflies, and insect larvae. They will eat an insect if they get near it. They typically eat insects when they hunt and are out looking for food, specifically meat.   

Baby Turtles 

This one might seem odd because if you know anything about turtles’ diets, they actually eat crayfish. Turtles will attack crayfish nearby. But crayfish will eat baby turtles. If the turtles are juvenile/young adults, it is unlikely. Only baby turtles are in danger of being eaten by crayfish.   


Frogs are relatively slow, especially for slow crayfish. Crayfish are aggressive and will eat a frog that jumps by. Sometimes it can be difficult for this to happen in the wild because there is more open space for the frogs to escape. But if the crayfish get a hold of frogs, they will devour them.   


Shrimps are a much-welcomed snack for crayfish. Crayfish usually can’t catch shrimp in the wild because crayfish are slow creatures. However, if they get hold of shrimp, they will most certainly enjoy them as a meal. Crayfish will also eat dead shrimp without any hesitation.   


Tadpoles that cross paths with crayfish will get nipped at. Invasive crayfish that are predators and hunt for food enjoy tadpoles and frogs. These crayfish are super aggressive and will not let any type of animal matter pass them without an attempt to turn them into a meal.   

Baby Crayfish   

This might make your skin crawl, but crayfish are cannibalistic. They voraciously feed on their own offspring and babies of other crayfish without the slightest hesitation. Crayfish are commonly known as terrible parents. When they are hungry, hunting, or invasive, their offspring are unsafe.   

What Do Baby Crayfish Eat In The Wild?   

While adult and fully grown crayfish will eat whatever they encounter, from plant to animal matter, dead or alive, baby crayfish are not as voracious and brutal. They have a slightly more specific diet.   

Baby crayfish in the wild primarily eat algae. They may also eat microorganisms such as plankton or other small bugs and worms. They will also eat leaves and grass if necessary.   

If the baby crayfish are hungry, they might eat the same things grown crayfish eat. When molting, they also eat their own species – other crayfish. Baby crayfish will eat each other when molting because they are weak and defenseless.   

Where Do Crayfish Live? 

Crayfish 16+ Foods That Crayfish Love to Eat in the Wild

Crayfish are naturally thought of as rivers, stream, and pond creatures; however, crayfish live in various habitats.   

There are two types of crayfish, surface-dwelling and burrowing crayfish. These crayfish in the wild are found in different kinds of wetland environments:   

Surface-Dwelling Crayfish:   

  • Streams   
  • Creeks   
  • Rivers   
  • Lakes   
  • Swamps   

Burrowing Crayfish:   

  • Tunnels in wetlands   
  • Lawns   
  • Moist soils   
  • Drainage ditches   
  • Underground water chambers   

You also get pet crayfish that people will keep in home ponds and fish tanks/aquariums. These crayfish require regular water changes and sufficient space and water area. The water must always cover the back of the animal.   

Farmed crayfish used for commercial purposes are kept in freshwater ponds in open, flat areas. These freshwater ponds must include sufficient clay, like sandy or silty clay loams. Baby crayfish should be removed once separated from the adult.   

The adult crayfish can also be removed and separated from the baby crayfish. Adult crayfish will feed on baby crayfish. It is best to keep them independent to avoid this.  

Frequently Asked Questions

What Do Crayfish Eat In A Pond?   

Crayfish in ponds will eat anything they are fed – similar to wild crayfish diets. That said, most crayfish farmers will provide their crayfish with commercially purchased food, such as invertebrates, sinking pallets, and algae wafers.   

Vegetables and greens are also prepared for crayfish in ponds. Mashed peas, blanched carrots, zucchini, romaine lettuce, spinach, etc., are great options. Small pieces of fruit can also be fed to crayfish. Any decaying greens can also be given to crayfish.   

Crayfish need to have a balanced diet to grow properly and maintain health. A mixture of prepared and store-bought commercial foods is the best option for pond crayfish to eat.   

What Do Crayfish Need To Survive?   

For crayfish to survive, they need fresh, clean water. The water must be regularly changed or filtered to remain free of pollution. The water’s pH level should be around 7.0. For colder climates, slightly heated water (between 70-75 degrees) is also necessary for the crayfish to survive.   

For crayfish kept in tanks and aquariums, rocks, pebbles, and stones at the bottom can help keep the water clean. Regarding food for survival, crayfish eat almost anything and everything. From frozen fish pieces, shrimp, algae, twigs, leaves, bugs, etc., they eat anything they encounter or are fed.   

How Do You Take Care Of A Wild Crayfish?   

There is an entire process to taking care of a wild crayfish. They will require a proper environment if you want them to survive. When considering purchasing a crayfish to care for, there are factors to keep in mind:   

The crayfish housing: Where you will keep it and if you have the right tank. A small tank is typically sufficient for a crayfish as long as it has enough space to move around.   

Clean, fresh water: The tank must have a water filter system or be changed regularly. Polluted, dirty water is unsafe for crayfish survival.   

Check for hidden food: Crayfish like to hide their food in tank caves, flower pots, behind rocks, etc. This can cause the water to decline. Always check for hidden food when cleaning the tank.   

Avoid keeping more than one crayfish: When they molt, they are weak and defenseless, causing other crayfish to attack and feed on them. Enough space and water are required for more than one crayfish. Providing hiding spaces within the tank is also essential.   

Food for the crayfish: Crayfish eat various plant and animal matter in the wild. When caring for them, it is important to feed them a balanced diet comprising sinking pallets, green vegetables, frozen fish, etc.   

Keep pregnant and baby crayfish separate: A female crayfish carrying eggs should be separated. Baby crayfish should also be removed from the adult crayfish, or they will get eaten.   

How To Cook Wild-Caught Crayfish   

Always wash your crayfish thoroughly before cooking. Boil the crayfish for 1-2 minutes to help clean and kill any bacteria before cooking as desired. Soaking it in the boiled water for 15-20 minutes will help the crayfish get even cleaner (based on their diet…they aren’t exactly clean fish).

You can transfer it to a pot of cleaned, boiled water for cooking till done. It will be done when the crayfish turn bright red and float to the surface. Alternatively, you can grill, bake or fry it. You can also remove the crayfish meat and add it to pasta, soup, curries, casseroles, etc.   

Will Crayfish Survive In Tap Water?   

Most tap water is not the best option for crayfish. They do not tolerate polluted or dirty water well. Filtered water, conditioned ta water, well water, and spring water are safer options for crayfish survival.   

Do Crayfish Live In Deep Or Shallow Water?   

Crayfish in deep water can deplete the oxygen at the bottom. They can suffocate if they can’t swim to the surface for fresh air. The water must cover the back of the crayfish but should not be deeper than 6″.   

Do Crayfish Live In The Ocean?   

Some crayfish can survive in salt water. But most crayfish prefer freshwater with shelter against predators.  Crayfish can’t handle salt water for long periods. A crayfish in the ocean or placed in salt water will either die from a lack of oxygen or the stress of the experience.

Do Crayfish Eat Rice?   

Crayfish can eat rice seeds and seedlings. Crayfish tend to dig in the ground, which can uproot seedlings. In some production systems, farmers plant rice specifically for crayfish feeds.   

Can Humans Eat Wild Crayfish?   

You can eat wild-caught crayfish. Many people worldwide love to prepare fresh crayfish. Crayfish must be cooked before eating, and only a portion of its body can be eaten. The shells cannot be eaten, and the meat from the tails is commonly eaten. Many also enjoy the meat from the head.   


Wild crayfish are omnivorous. They eat anything and everything they encounter, from plant to animal matter. They are also cannibals and veraciously eat their own, including their offspring.

More FAQs

What do crayfish eat in a pond?

Crayfish in a pond eat a variety of food, including decaying matter such as dead insects, worms, algae, and fish. Additionally, they may also consume small live fish that pass by if they are not in the mood to search for food. These crayfish also obtain their plant-based nutrition by devouring algae and aquatic plants.

What do crayfish like to eat the most?

Crayfish primarily consume decaying vegetation and aquatic organisms like rotten leaves, dead fish, algae, plankton, and twigs. However, they also exhibit predatory behavior by feeding on small worms, snails, eggs, larvae, insects, shrimps, fish, tadpoles, baby turtles, frogs, and even their own offspring.

Can crayfish eat bread?

Crayfish can eat bread, as it has been discovered by many fishermen that bread is a surprisingly effective bait for these small crustaceans, despite being often overlooked as an option.

What plants do crayfish eat?

Crayfish eat a variety of aquatic vegetation, including algae, duckweed, water lettuce, and water hyacinth, as they are omnivorous scavengers that consume both plants and animals.

What is a crayfish favorite food?

The favorite food of a crayfish includes decaying vegetation and aquatic creatures like rotten leaves, dead fish, algae, plankton, and twigs. Additionally, crayfish can also act as hunters and consume small worms, snails, eggs, larvae, insects, shrimps, fish, tadpoles, baby turtles, frogs, and even their own baby crayfish.

Do crayfish eat lettuce?

Crayfish do eat lettuce, along with a variety of other vegetables such as spinach, zucchini, peas, and carrots. Additionally, dried squid, algae, and Java moss can also be included in their diet.

What are crayfish attracted to?

Crayfish are attracted to various types of bait, such as chicken necks, live worms, or fish heads, which are enticing to them due to their scavenger nature and preference for consuming dead and decaying matter.

Can crayfish eat apples?

Crayfish can eat apples as part of their omnivorous diet, which includes both plant and animal matter. While they primarily consume aquatic plants and animals like insects and small fish, they are also capable of consuming certain fruits like apples.

Do crayfish eat bread?

Crayfish do eat bread, as many fishermen have discovered that bread can be a surprisingly effective bait for these small crustaceans, despite it being an often overlooked option.

Do crayfish eat cucumbers?

Crayfish do eat cucumbers, as they can be a significant part of their diet due to being an excellent source of fiber and water, which are essential components for their overall health.

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